Before You Go

Backcountry Safety & Etiquette



We've all seen beautiful photos of rugged places and wanted to get out there and see them for ourselves. But some of the prettiest places are harder to get to than you may realize, and being in the backcountry has inherent risks. Every year hundreds of unprepared hikers end up missing, injured, or worse — sometimes even putting the lives of search and rescue volunteers at risk. It's extremely important that we follow a few simple safety guidelines when we're in the backcountry — accidents, while unlikely, can happen to anyone at any time, and a little extra planning and preparedness might save you a load of trouble.


Do you know what the trail conditions are like? Do you have the right footwear? Have you checked the weather forecast? Will you have enough daylight? Many of the trails around the PNW can be very challenging and physically demanding, and deep snow can linger on the upper slopes well into July or even August. Resources like Vancouver Trails, AllTrails, BC Parks, and the Washington Trails Association can provide extremely valuable information, and knowing what you're heading into can help you prepare for the unexpected.


Leave a note with a friend explaining where you're going, the route you're taking, who is with you, and your expected return time. In the unlikely event that you get lost or injured the police and SAR will know where to start looking for you, decreasing your exposure time and increasing the likelihood that you'll make it home safe and sound.


If you're hiking a steep trail on a hot day your body can lose several litres of water easy, and being dehydrated when you're miles from anywhere isn't the best way to spend an afternoon. Bring lots of water! And snacks can help keep your energy levels high.
Even with the best planning things can go wrong, so always try carry a few extra items just in case: a flashlight or headlamp (plus spare batteries) and extra clothes in case the weather changes or you're forced to spend the night, a signalling device such as a whistle, a basic first aid kit, and some sort of navigation system (compass or gps) and a reliable satellite communications device, especially if you’re going off trail.


Many wild places don't have cell reception, and in BC it's extremely likely that your hike won't either. Many of the mountain valleys are narrow, and sometimes you won't get cell service even on short hikes near the city. Bring your phone, but plan on being out of reach.


Pretty obvious, but just be sure to watch where you're going, pay attention to trail markers and signs, and keep an eye on the time.


While there are plenty of bears here in BC it’s pretty rare that you’ll encounter one. Best practice is to avoid them if you can by travelling in groups and making loud noises while you hike and by cooking and securing all food and scented attractants well away from camp either out of reach in a tree or in a bear vault. If a bear learns to associate people with food it can lose its natural fear, become aggressive, and might need to be killed. Please don't let that happen.

But still, if you’re out hiking often enough you’ll eventually see bears. While they're usually shy and more scared of you than you are of them, they may attack when surprised or if they feel threatened. Making noise while you're hiking can help a lot, especially in thick brush with low visibility or near loud creeks. If you do see a bear, stop and assess the situation. Are there cubs nearby, or a food source it might want to protect? If the bear hasn't noticed you, consider slowly backing away the way you came, or if you must continue make some noise and give it a very wide berth. If the bear has seen you and is making a lot of noise huffing and snorting and stamping and bluff charging, chances are it's just being defensive and trying to tell you it needs more space. Try to appear non-threatening by remaining still and calm, speak in an appeasing voice, and slowly increase your distance.

But if the bear is approaching quietly be extra aware — it may just be curious, or it might be testing its dominance or even see you as prey. Talk firmly, get out of its path, and if it continues to follow you shout at it, make yourself look large, and prepare to stand your ground and fight for your life. Bear attacks are rare, and they are less aggressive than dogs or spiders or snakes, but they’re shockingly strong and unpredictable and we'll often carry some bear spray or other deterrent just in case.

For more information on staying safe in the backcountry, check out the AdventureSmart, North Shore Search & Rescue, Coquitlam Search & Rescue, and Get Bear Smart websites


Please respect the places you visit. Always practice Leave No Trace principles, know local regulations, and don't damage these amazing places for a photograph. Let's keep our wild places pristine so they can continue inspiring people for generations and remain a healthy habitat for plants and animals to thrive in.


Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you're visiting. Is there a campfire ban? Is there a seasonal closure to minimize impacts on animals? Are you required to carry an approved bear canister or other gear? Visit in small groups when possible, avoid times of high use, and repackage food to minimize waste.


Protect sensitive areas by camping at least 200ft from lakes and streams, and try to stay on durable surfaces like existing trails or campsites, rock, gravel, dry grass, or snow. Stay on trails, don't cut corners on switchbacks, and don't widen a muddy trail by walking on the sides. Keep your campsite small and focus on areas where vegetation is absent. Or if you're hiking in a group through a pristine area, try to spread out to prevent the creation of worn-down campsites and trails, and avoid areas where impacts are just beginning. The old adage of "take only photos, leave only footprints" is a good start... but if possible, try to minimize your footprints too.


One of the most obvious points is to pack out everything you brought in. Don't leave your trash! This includes toilet paper and other hygiene products — there's nothing more disgusting than hiking up to a scenic viewpoint and finding used toilet paper all over the place. Bring a ziploc bag and pack all that stuff out. Deposit solid human waste in cat-holes dug 6–8" deep at least 200 feet from all water, trails, or camp — or get the Parks Service biowaste bags and pack that out too. If you use soap to wash, carry your wash water 200ft away from all water sources, use small amounts of biodegradeable soap, and scatter your used washwater.


Preserve both natural and historic environments: examine but do not touch cultural or historic structures or artifacts. Leave rocks, plants, and other natural objects as you found them — you really shouldn’t have to pick and kill wildflowers to enjoy them, just appreciate them as they are.


Campfires can cause lasting impacts on the backcountry. Please bring a stove for cooking and a flashlight for light. For most of the summer campfires aren't allowed in BC, but even if fires are permitted, use established fire rings and keep fires small, only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand, burn all wood to ash, put the fire out completely, then scatter the cool ashes.


Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow, approach, or feed animals. Feeding wildlife can damage their health, alter natural behaviour, and expose them to predators and other dangers. Protect wildlife (and your food) by storing all your food and garbage securely and out of reach. And try to avoid wildlife altogether during sensitive times: mating, nesting, raising young, or in winter.


And lastly, please respect other visitors and do your best to protect the quality of their experience. Leave your stereo at home and try not to be too loud or make a lot of unwarranted noise. Be courteous and yield to others on the trail, and try to give other hikers and campers some space by taking your breaks and setting up camp away from them. Remember, people are out there to experience nature, not to experience you ;)

For more info and guiding principles about backcountry sustainability, visit Leave No Trace


You don’t need the lightest, most expensive gear to have a good time out in the wild — generally a few good pieces of quality gear are all you need. That said, the lighter your bag the better you’ll feel after a long day of trekking, and cutting your carry weight to a minimum can be a transformative and clarifying experience. Do your research, stay within your budget, bring what you have, leave what you don’t need behind, don't stress over it, and if you have any questions please ask!


An essential first piece. How big of a backpack you’ll need depends on what you want to carry and how long you plan on being out there, but a good general size for overnight trips would be 50 to 65L. If you can, try find a pack that weighs less than 3lbs (1.4kg). Lately we’ve been using the new Gregory Optic/Octal packs and they are pretty nice! Full featured like a regular backpack, and almost 2lbs lighter than our previous packs. That’s not insignificant, and after a day on the trail we feel the difference. You can find similar options from Osprey, and if you’re looking to go even lighter check out the ultralight cottage-industry brands like Pa’lante Packs or Hyperlite Mountain Gear.


We’ve been using the Big Agnes Copper Spur UL2 for a few years and it has held up really well. It’s quite snug for two people, with basically only enough room for our sleeping pads, but with pegs and a ground sheet and everything it weighs just over 3 lbs (1.5kg) so its quite lightweight. It does feel kinda fragile though, so to help extend its life we also use a second heavier and more durable (and cheaper) tent for car and canoe camping. There are ultralight single wall tents that can cut the weight down x further, but I think as long as you can find a tent that weighs less than 2–3lbs per person you are doing ok.


For sleeping bags there are two main categories: down and synthetic. Down is generally lighter per given temperature rating, but synthetic will perform better when wet. We’ve always used down and probably always will — a wet bag would be uncomfortable no matter what it’s filled with, so just take precautions to keep it dry. For a temperature ratings, -6°C (20°F) is generally considered the most versatile bag for three season travel, but we both use slightly warmer -12°C (10°F) bags. If we’re warm we just leave it open, and if we’re cold we just wear another layer. Megan has been using a super lightweight quilt from Enlightened Equipment and I have a heavier traditional mummy bag from Sea to Summit, but again, tons of options here!

For sleeping pads, we upgraded to the Thermarest NeoAir a couple years back and have never looked back. They are lightweight and super comfortable. Kinda annoying to blow up every night and a little crinkly if you toss and turn, but hey. The cushy sleep is worth it.

For pillows we generally just scrunch up our thermal layers / extra clothes and use that. One time I had to use my wet boots and while it worked ok I’d say avoid that if you can.


I got sick once while camping and it was the absolute worst, so we always make sure to boil or filter our water before drinking it. Right now we are using the Sawyer Squeeze water filter and it’s great. Way better than the old pump I used to have.


For camp cooking we use the MSR Pocket Rocket 2, it’s a great little stove! If you’re just boiling water and eating dehydrated food you might want to check out the more efficient Jetboil or Reactor stoves, or if consider pairing the Pocket Rocket with a small titanium pot. But for actual cooking you’ll probably want to look at aluminum as titanium really doesn’t distribute heat very well and tends to burn your food. The GSI Halulite 1.8L Boiler or Sea to Summit Alpha 1.9L are both a good size pots for 2 people. For utensils you def want a good little knife, and we carry two Snow Peak sporks, though admittedly they don’t work very well as either a fork or a spoon.

For meals, we like to dehydrate our own food whenever possible. Sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t, but at least it keeps things interesting. Then just pack some cheese and crackers, some nuts, some chocolate, some oatmeal, some fruity vegetable, and you're golden.


When we’re overnighting in the backcountry we carry a small amount of toilet paper, some hand sanitizer, and a small lightweight trowel to aid in digging cat holes.


If you're heading out in the warmer months you probably won't need as many clothes as you think — maybe just a change of underwear and socks, a warm layer, a jacket, and what you plan on wearing. Which jackets you pack will depend on the conditions, but we’ll pretty well always carry rain shells and at least a lightweight insulation layer. If nothing else they can be a good wind breaker or a crappy pillow. For insulation, something like the Uniqlo Ultralite Down or the much pricier Mountain Hardwear Ghost Whisperer jackets are both good options, or a lightweight synthetic like the Arcteryx Atom LT or even a basic cheapo fleece. Hoods can help keep the wind and bugs out, so def look for something with a hood.

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